Nova XML Guidelines for Book


These guidelines explains the specification to be maintained while loading a book XML into Nova.

Book Interchange Tag Suite (BITS) is a tag suite dependent on NLM's well-known Journal Article Tag Suite and is currently an NISO standard. The components characterized by the DTD are engaging, so we selected BITS as our standard. For instance, the holds the book title. To know more about the description of the tag set, tagging details and an extensive library of the descriptive tags, click on the link below:

Ensure that your XML files conform to the BITS standard before uploading to Nova.

Processing print books to the web

The design and formatting of a print book and its presentation on the web are different things. There are various results that are not quickly evident that require XML arranged for the web to be not the same as XML arranged for print. We can spare time and exertion by fusing a portion of these distinction into writing process sufficiently early, therefore brings about an exceptionally meaningful book both in print and on the web. There are few sections such as referencing other section, word-wrap, tables, list numbering and section titles whose occurrence on the web is extremely different from print.

Referencing other portions of the text

Let us see the correct and incorrect way of referencing the text.

Incorrect WayCorrect Way
"See page 458"

This type of text do not work on the web since page numbers don't exist on the web. Instead you can mention by referring to chapter.
"See Figure 1–1" and "See Chapter 24, Section 2: The Powerful Numbers"

This works admirably on the web since one can explore to and discover these things.
"See top image"

This type of text do not work because you cannot specify exact placement of components on the web the way you can in print.
"See Image 64"

This works admirably on the web.

It is likewise conceivable to make hyperlinks in the XML document by utilizing inside identifiers. The referenced content would have an ID and the referring text would have a jump link that utilizes the ID to highlight the referenced text.


Words that wrap on the printed page have a hyphen between syllables, whereas this approach is not possible on the web because the width of the text display area cannot be controlled. The web display must include various screen sizes of different gadgets such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops and desktop monitors. The hyphens exist solely for word-wrapping reason need to be removed, during conversion of the book, that was originally designed for print, into web format. The same is applicable for lengthy URLs with a space inserted at the end of a line. The URL with space at the end doesn't work.


Working with tables in print book is entirely different from tables in web, because various options can be done with tables in print that are actually not supported by today's browsers and markup languages or that are not compatible with the web.

Example: Tables cannot be turned sideways on the web. Very large tables that are displayed over several pages need to be changed into single table for web display.

List Numbering

Numbers and bullets do not need to be included in the XML text for lists that are tagged as numbered or bulleted lists, because the system will automatically generate number or bullet lists based on the list tagging. If the numbers are included in the text, then the display on the web will show two numbers or bullets in front of each list item, one from the system automation and one from the text.

Section Titles

First, the section titles are converted into HTML headings on the site, then those headings are styled based on the hierarchy of the sections within the document. Nova does not support figures or tables as part of a section title, nor does it support links inside of a title. Inline-graphics are supported.

Specification for Book XML Encoding

XML must be well-structured XML according to the Nova XML Recommendation, fully tagged and valid to the BITS DTD, v.2.0 For a description of this tag set and tagging details, refer

Nova accepts books in two forms:

  • Fully tagged (preferable).
  • Metadata-only (for books available in PDF only). Book metadata for both forms must be complete as described here.

Note: Guidelines regarding body tagging do not apply to metadata-only document.

Book File Structure

Nova accepts book XML in one of two ways:

  1. The whole book in one XML file.
  2. Separate XML files for each chapter.
Single XML file Multiple XML file
Single file
Book file root element is <book>
Parts and Chapters
root element is <book-part>
Book parts
root element is <book-part-wrapper>
For new book
Meta data required within each file
• Book-id
• Title
• Publisher
For new book
Book part file must contain the same book metadata that is required for new books. Subsequent book part files must include the book's ISBN.

Required Book Metadata


Unique identifiers are required on the following elements:

  • abstract
  • aff
  • app
  • book-part
  • boxed-text
  • caption
  • dedication
  • disp-formula
  • fig
  • fn
  • foreword
  • glossary
  • graphic
  • inline-formula
  • inline-graphic
  • inline-supplementary-
  • material
  • list
  • media
  • p (paragraph)
  • preface
  • ref
  • sec
  • table

Identifiers are set using the @id attribute and must be unique within the book. They can be any combination of numbers and letters and must start with a letter, per XML rules. Publishers may have IDs on as many other elements as they like and this is encouraged by Nova. Unique identifiers allow for the replacement of content while maintaining semantic tagging, retaining statistical usage data, Learning Module links, user bookmarks and cross-site links.


Nova uses the ISBN to identify books (for example, to match a new part or chapter to its already-created book in the system). Make sure to use dashes properly, because ISBN will be displayed exactly as mentioned in the XML. Use the isbn element with the following attributes to designate the ISBN.

​​ISBN typetag
​​10-digit ISBN​​<isbn publication-format="print" content-type="ISBN10">5-88-957886-1</isbn>​
​​13-digit ISBN​​<isbn publication-format="print" content-type="ISBN13">334-5-78-453908-2</isbn>​
​​electronic ISBN​​<isbn publication-format="electronic">778-4-12-543098-8</isbn>​


For DOIs assigned to the book, use book-id book-id-type="doi".

For DOIs assigned to a book chapter or other book parts, use book-part-id book-part-id-type="doi".

<book-part-id book-part-id-type="doi">10.1234/myBook_3352.2013

For DOIs assigned to figures, tables, supplementary material or any other components within the book, use the element with a @pub-id-type="doi" attribute.


    <object-id pub-id-type="doi">10.1234/ch8fig1.20130413

DOIs within citations are tagged differently. They use the < pub-unit > element.

Publisher ID

For publisher-unique IDs assigned to the book, use < book-id book-id-type="publisher-id" >


To assign an ISSN to a book (optional), use < issn > with the @publication-format="electronic" attribute.

XML statement

The following statement are required at the top of each XML file:

  • XML version
  • Character encoding
  • Document Type Definition


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD BITS Book Interchange DTD v2.0 20151225//EN" "BITS-book2.dtd">
For testing purposes, you may wish to use the following:
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD BITS Book Interchange DTD v2.0 20151225//EN" "BITS-book2.dtd"> 

Special character

UTF–8 character encoding is needed to ensure that characters are translated properly upon import into the Nova database. Content XML may also contain numeric character references (e.g. ř or ř ) or the character entity references that BITS supports for special characters. Predefined entities for the ampersand, less-than, and greater-than should be used where the intent is to display the actual characters ampersand (&), less-than (<), or greater-than (>) respectively; the predefined entities ought not be utilized where those characters are part of markup or encodings.

Some characters do not have a unique encoding. For example capital V with a dot over it, used to indicate ventilation rate in medical texts. To encode a V with a dot, use combining diacritical marks. For example, to encode V dot, use V̇ which will produce this: V̇.

Required Book Metadata by Nova

The following metadata is required by Nova (regardless of whether not required by the DTD). This data is required in the main document imported to a book with the goal that the system can populate the information when the book is created. This table just incorporates the necessary elements. Publishers may likewise incorporate any of different components characterized in the BITS DTD. These are the required elements in the book-meta/ tag.

​​Element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<pub-date>​​​4-digit year only, e.g. <pub-date><year>2013</year></pub-date>​
​​<isbn>​​​At least one ISBN is required.
​​<alt-title alt-title-type="short-name">​

Book IDs

The ISBNs fill in as one of unique identifiers for books in Nova. The initial file that is imported to a book will make the book in the system, and build up the ISBNs for the book. Every single ensuing import to the book must contain the ISBN with the goal that the system can coordinate the document to the current book. The resulting records don't have to contain the entirety of the ISBN types, yet can't contain more ISBN types than are in the system.

Book Titles

Provide the book title in the < book-title > element. Nova supports three ways to store a title:

  • Title which is the official title of the book.
  • Display name is what is actually shown on the site and it can be different from the official title according to publisher needs.
  • Citation name is used when creating citations for the book or when the book is sent to a third-party site such as PubMed.

The title and short name are required while creating another book; the others are discretionary. In the event that no substitute titles are given, the title will be utilized. Provide alternate titles as follows:

Alternate title typeElement​​Notes
​​display name​​<alt-title alt-title-type="display">​​​If display name is not provided, the book-title will display.
​​citation name​​<alt-title alt-title-type="citation">​​If citation is not provided, the book-title will display.
​​short name​​<alt-title alt-title-type="short-name">​​Required. Short code to identify the book, often used to prefix image names and ID values. This does not usually display on the site anywhere.


Provide the book's edition in the <edition> element. Do not include the edition in the title of the book. Use the @designator attribute to include the edition number as an unadorned numeric or alphabetic value. In the example below, the value 1 will be stored for purposes such as sorting, while "1st edition" could be used for display.

<edition designator="1">1<sup>st</sup> edition</edition> 


Book Level vs Chapter Level Contributors

Contributors at the book level go in the < contrib-group > at the < book-meta > level. Part and chapter level contributors (chapters are just another type of book part) go into the < contrib-group > at the < book-part-meta > level. Contibutors may also be included at the section level by giving a < contrib-group > at the < sec-meta > level.

​​    <book-meta>
​​    …
​​    <contrib-group>
​​        <contrib id="ed1">
​​            <name>
​​                <surname>Harper</surname>
​​                <given-names>Avery</given-names>
​​                <prefix>Dr</prefix>
​​                <suffix>Jr</suffix>
​​            </name>
​​                <degrees>MD, PhD</degrees>
​​                <role>Editor</role>
​​        </contrib>
​​    </contrib-group>
​​    …
​​    </book-meta>

​​    <book-body>
​​        <book-part id="chapter_1" book-part-type="chapter">
​​            <book-part-meta>
​​                <title-group>
​​                    <title>Human health</title>
​​                </title-group>
​​                <contrib-group>
​​                    <contrib id="auth1">
​​                        <name>
​​                            <surname>Harper</surname>
​​                            <given-names>Jack</given-names>
​​                            <prefix>Dr</prefix>
​​                        </name>
​​                        <degrees>PhD</degrees>
​​                    </contrib>
​​                </contrib-group>
​​                …
​​            </book-part-meta>
​​        </book-part>
​​    </book-body>

Contributor names

As per BITS specification, use <xref> to link to the institution information in the <aff> section. The target <aff> element should be in the same XML file as the author and <xref> . For all contributors, give any suffixes such as "Jr" or "II" in the <suffix> field rather than as part of the <surname> field. Titles such as "Dr" or "Mr" before the author's name should fall under <prefix> field, and any degrees in the <degrees> field.


​​    <contrib id="auth1">
​​       <name>
​​         <surname>Harper</surname>
​​         <given-names>Avery</given-names>
​​         <prefix>Dr</prefix>
​​         <suffix>Jr</suffix>
​​       </name>
​​       <degrees>MD, PhD</degrees>
​​       <xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff1"><sup>1</supp></xref>
​​    </contrib>
​​<aff id="aff1"><sup>1</sup>Information Systems, Charlottesville, VA 22902</aff> 

Collaborative group authors

If the author is a group credited under a single name, use the < collab > element in place of the < name >. Contributing members of the group can be provided as a child node of the < collab > element.

​​    <contrib id="authgrp1">
​​        <collab>
​​            Institute of Safety
​​            <contrib-group>             
​​                <contrib id="auth2">
​​                    <name>
​​                        <surname>Harper</surname>
​​                        <given-names>Avery</given-names>
​​                        <prefix>Dr</prefix>
​​                        <suffix>Jr</suffix>
​​                    </name>
​​                    <degrees>MD, PhD</degrees>
​​                </contrib>
​​                <contrib id="auth3">
​​                    <name>
​​                        <surname>Harper</surname>
​​                        <given-names>Jack</given-names>
​​                        <prefix>Dr</prefix>
​​                    </name>
​​                    <degrees>PhD</degrees>
​​                </contrib>
​​            </contrib-group>
​​        </collab>
​​    </contrib>


If the contributor is an editor or has a role other than "author", give this data in the <role> field.

Author Comment

Provide notes related to an individual author in the <author-comment> tag with an indication of the type of note in the content-type attribute. For example, if an author is deceased, use the following syntax:

<author-comment content-type="Deceased"><p>John Q. Author passed away in 2011.  He was the primary author of this chapter for 15 years.</p></author-comment> 

This will cause a note to appear with the author's name.
For information that is in the nature of a disclosure, use the following:

<author-comment content-type="Disclosure"><p>The author wrote this work in his capacity as a private citizen; no endorsement by his employer is implied or assumed.</p></author-comment> 

For all other author notes, either omit the @content-type attribute or use a value of "Other".

<author-comment content-type="Other"><p>The authors wish to thank Dr. P. Bear for his contributions to this chapter.</p></author-comment> 

Acknowledgements are always included in <ack> section of the <book-back>. In most cases, large books involve the contribution of many editors and authors. Let us see the two cases in acknowledgment, if an individual author of a particular chapter wants to add acknowledgment or any comment pertained to that individual author only and not the other authors, use the <author-comment>

For acknowledgements or comments by all the chapter authors, use the <author-notes> tag in the <book-part-meta> section.If there is a need to differentiate notes from acknowledgements, use the <author-notes> tag at the <book-meta> level for notes applicable to all book authors.


The publication date for the book should be included in a < pub-date > node. Only the year will be saved. To supply a date, the following options are available:

  • Supply at least a < month > and < year > in numerical form in numerical form.
  • Supply a date in ISO 8601 format using an @iso–8601-date attribute and the format YYYY-MM-DD.
  • If both are present, the value from the @iso-8601-date attribute will be imported.


The < permissions > element always for copyright information and license material.


The followings are required in copyrights

  • <copyright-statement>: The information that will display on the site should be the complete statement of copyright for the content. It is likely that this will duplicate information in the <copyright-year> and <copyright-holder> elements.
  • <copyright-year>: The year of copyright.
  • <copyright-holder>: The name of the copyright holder.

License, Including Free and Open Access

The <license> element involves certain conditions under which people are allowed to use the content, or other license-related information or restrictions. The @license-type attribute defines the type of license being granted.

  • @license-type: The access type to be stored in the database. The following licenses will make the content available on the site without authentication. Other license types will default to private.
@license-type​ attribute value​​Meaning
free​​Available to all users without authentication forever
  • <license-p>: A paragraph of text within the description of a <license>. This content is available without a subscription. It may not be altered in any way and proper attribution is required.


To add a supplement to the book, use the <supplementary-material> tag in the <book-meta>.Use the <label> tag for a label, and the <title> tag inside the <caption> for a title. Other explanatory text should go in the <caption> tag, in <p> elements.
<supplementary-material id="book_supp01" xlink:href="classroom_support.ppt">
   <label>Teaching Materials</label>
      <p>Slideset for use in the classroom.</p>

All supplements have to be identified using the <supplementary-material> tag, regardless of whether they are called out in the text or not.To reference a supplement within the text, use the <inline-supplementary-material> tag. The values of the id and xlink attributes should match those used in the <supplementary-material> tag. Supplementary material can be assigned a unique identifier such as a DOI using the <object-id> tag within the element. The @pub-id-type attribute must be included with a value of either DOI.

Cover Images

To link an image of the cover, use the <supplementary-material> tag within the <book-meta> section. Include a @content-type="book-cover" attribute.

<supplementary-material id = "cover_book_img1" content-type="book-cover" xlink:href="cover.png">
   <label>Cover Title</label>
   <caption>This is a blurb about the cover.</caption>

Cover images should be 300 px wide.


Abstracts should be included in the <abstract> node within the <book-meta> or <book-part-meta> elements. The authored abstract should have no @abstract-type attribute, or it should have the attribute @abstract-type="abstract". The attributes @abstract-type="teaser" and @abstract-type="precis" will also be imported.

Front Matter

When it comes to front matter, everything is option. Generally, front matter contains TOC with a link to the front matter content. Publishers can use the named (predefined) book part elements from BITS in the book and book-part front matter, or use <front-matter-part> for anything not covered by the predefined elements. The @book-part-type attribute on <front-matter-part> will be ignored.

Front Matter Sections

You can incorporate the named elements for front matter (preface, dedication, and foreword) in your XML. You can also include the nonexclusive front-matter-part element. Nova will not, however, differentiate these front matter parts dependent on the book-part-type attribute.

Table of Contents

The TOC is genertaed based on the order of parts or chapter mentioned in the XML. For single XML file, you can arrange the order according to the way you want, provided with correct nesting for chapters inside parts. You can also submit a pre-structured TOC using <toc> element at the top of book-part wrapper or book parts. Nova displays TOC as mentioned in the XML and won't reorder those TOC dynamically. The <toc-group> element will be ignored.

Back Matter

All of the <book-back> elements are optional. The <ack> and <bio> element may be included in book and book-part back matter.

Book Body XML Encoding

A book may include parts and chapters, tagged using the element with either the @book-part-type="part" or @book-part-type="chapter" attribute. Other book-part-types are not supported at this time. Some books use the term "Section" instead of Part. Use @book-part-type="part" for any piece of the book hierarchy that does include text content, i.e. anything above a chapter.

Provide part and chapter numbers in the element under the, with the term that you want to refer to that part. Chapter "numbers" can be either numeric or non-numeric, for example, e16 for an electronic-only chapter or 3s indicating a supplemental chapter. E.g. the code shown in the Book Parts section will produce the following output:

Part 1: Life of Ants

Chapter 1: Food Collection

Chapter 2: Saving Food

Chapter 1: Food Collection
Chapter 2: Saving Food
Include part and chapter titles in the <title> element under the <title-group>.

Book Parts

Book parts are indicated using the <book-part> tag with an attribute of @book-part-type="part". Chapters go inside their own book-parts within the body of the Part book part. All book-parts require an @id.

​​<book-part id="1234" book-part-type="part">
​​    <book-part-meta>
​​        <title-group>
​​            <label>Part 1</label>
​​            <title>Life of Ants</title>
​​        </title-group>
​​    </book-part-meta>
​​    <body>
​​        <book-part id="chapter_1" book-part-type="chapter">
​​            <book-part-meta>
​​                <title-group>
​​                    <label>Chapter 1</label>
​​                    <title>Food collection</title>
​​                </title-group>
​​            </book-part-meta>
​​        </book-part>
​​        <book-part id="chapter_2" book-part-type="chapter">
​​            <book-part-meta>
​​                <title-group>
​​                    <label>Chapter 2</label>
​​                    <title>Saving Food</title>
​​                </title-group>
​​            </book-part-meta>
​​        </book-part>
​​    </body>

Chapters can be inside or outside a part. For example, the following is acceptable:

​​<book-part id="1111" book-part-type="chapter">
​​    <book-part-meta>
​​        <title-group>
​​    </book-part-meta>
​​<book-part id="1234" book-part-type="part">
​​    <book-part-meta>
​​        <title-group>
​​        <label>Part 1</label>
​​            <title>Bees and Honey</title>
​​        </title-group>
​​    </book-part-meta>
​​    <body>
​​        <book-part id="chapter_1" book-part-type="chapter">
​​            <book-part-meta>
​​                <title-group>
​​                    <label>Chapter 1</label>
​​                    <title>Food collection</title>
​​                </title-group>
​​            </book-part-meta>
​​        </book-part>
​​        <book-part id="chapter_2" book-part-type="chapter">
​​            <book-part-meta>
​​                <title-group>
​​                    <label>Chapter 2</label>
​​                    <title>Saving Food</title>
​​                </title-group>
​​            </book-part-meta>
​​        </book-part>
​​    </body>


The chapter element is <book-part book-part-type="chapter">. Required attributes are @book-part-type and @id.


Links within a book

To include cross-reference links within a book, use the <xref> element. The element ought to incorporate the @rid attribute to designate its objective component. The element it references must have coordinating @id attribute value. Use the <xref> build if the book is provided in separate XML files (book-part files) also. Any @id value that is referenced must be unique all through your content (over every single content types) to allow linking.

The @ref-type attribute is required only for cross references to an <aff> element, as portrayed in the contributors section. For cross references to author affiliations, the target <aff> element must be in the same XML file in addition to being in the same document. Except for references to author affiliations and to bibliographic references, the content of the <xref> element—often the figure number—will not be automatically generated; provide literal content for display as shown by the "4(g)" in this example:

See figure <xref ref-type="fig" rid="book1-f4">4(g) </xref>. 

If the bibliographic references in the <ref-list> section have an id attribute, then Nova can generate the link display text automatically, and this method is preferred.

Jones <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="book1-bib2" /> shows that… 

The @ref-type attribute indicates the element type of the cross-reference target and the @rid provides its id value. @rid may have only a single value; multiple links from an <xref> are not supported. If a document has a string of cross references either the <xref> should link to the first reference in the string or there must be a <xref> for each of the references. So, if a document contains:

… widely discussed [1, 2, 3] in the … 

you may either tag:

… widely discussed [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1" />, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r2" />, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r3" />] in the …
… widely discussed [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1">1, 2, 3</xref>] in the …
… widely discussed [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1">1, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r2">2, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r3">3] in the … 

External links

External links Use the <ext-link> element for links external to the book, except when pointing to an alternate form of the same article (section [Link to PDF of article]) or data supplements (section [Supplementary data]). The @xlink:href attribute should be used to specify the location of the external content. If the target content is part of your content on Nova, use the @ext-link-type="rid" attribute, and use the XML @id value as the target id in the @xlink:href attribute. To link to external content using the @id attribute, values must be unique throughout your content. The @xlink:href attribute is required to designate the target id. The @ext-link-type attribute is required to indicate the ID type, with one of the following values:

@ext-link-type="doi"​​​Identifies target by its DOI. The target must include a DOI with the <book-part-id>​ or <object-id>​ tag.
​​@ext-link-type="publisher-id"​​​Identifies target by its publisher ID. The target must include a unique publisher ID with the <book-part-id>​ or <object-id>​ tag.
​​@ext-link-type="rid"​​​Identifies target by its element's @id​ attribute. The target must include an @id​ attribute.
​​@ext-link-type="uri"​​​Identifies a target website (may be outside of Nova content).

The displayed content of the link—often the figure number—will not be automatically generated; provide literal content for display as shown by the "4(g)" in this example:

See figure:
    <ext-link ext-link-type="rid" xlink:href="book1234-f4">4(g)</ext-link> in
    <ext-link ext-link-type="doi" xlink:href="10.9999/book1234">Our Other Book</ext-link>. 


References ought to be labeled at as granular a level as conceivable to empower Nova to inquiry PubMed, CrossRef or other online databases, recover reference data and transform it into a live link and format references on the website. Granular tagging additionally empowers any other functionality based on references that might be wanted on the site. Both <element-citation > and <mixed-citation > are accepted. <mixed-citation > permits the publisher to characterize the spacing and formatting between elements. If there is no desire to link references to external databases, <mixed-citation > is likewise the least complex structure as the reference can be incorporated with no extra tagging. For Nova to link referenced journals to PubMed and CrossRef, the @publication-type attribute must be included in the <element-citation > or <mixed-citation > element, with the value " journal ". Nova recommends you to tag the following elements in reference. For articles:
  • Article title
  • Source
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • Publication Year
  • Publication Month and Day (if applicable)
  • First page of the article
  • Surname of principal author at a minimum, prefer to have all authors tagged
For books:
  • Book Title
  • Chapter Title
  • Part Title (if applicable)
  • Publication Year
  • Surname of principal author/editor at a minimum, prefer to have all authors/editors tagged
  • Publisher Name

PubMed ID

Nova can improve the reference citations with PubMed IDs. If your workflow locates the PubMed ID prior to delivery to Nova, wrap the ID in a <pub-id> tag with a @pub-id-type attribute value of "pmid".
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">455623</pub-id> 

If the PMID is excluded, the system will endeavor to find the reference at PubMed and acquire the PubMed ID. References must be granularly tagged for this to be conceivable.

DOIs in references

Nova can enhance reference citations with DOIs. If your workflow locates the DOI prior to delivery to Nova, wrap the DOI in a <pub-id> tag with a @pub-id-type attribute value of "doi".

<pub-id pub-id-type="doi">10.9999/example.13.5.198</pub-id>  

If the DOI is not excluded, the system will endeavor to find the reference at CrossRef and acquire the DOI. References must be granularly tagged for this to be possible.


Avoid wrapping lists inside paragraph tags. Figures and tables within a list may not work as expected. Images within a list need to be inline using either the <inline-graphic> tag (for very small images, such as an icon) or <graphic> tag (for larger images).

List types

Lists should use the @list-type attribute to define the type of list and the character to use for each list item. If no @list-type is provided, the list will default to "simple".

Nova supports the following list types (i.e. values for the @list-type attribute)

​​List type attributeDefault list item character​​Notes
​​simple​​n/a​​Gets list indentation, but no character in front of each item. Sometimes called "unordered".
​​number1, 2, 3
​​alpha-lower​​a, b, c
​​alpha-upper​​A, B, C
​​roman-lower​​i, ii, iii, iv
​​roman-upper​​I, II, III, IV

Do not give the prefix character in the XML text. The system will prefix list items with the fitting character dependent on the @list-type. If you have a particular symbol you need to utilize that are not accessible in accepted list types, mark your @list-type="simple" and include the prefix symbol in the XML. This ought to be utilized rarely to deal with one of a kind cases. If you have a list-type you use frequently that is excluded in the standard list-types, please contact Nova about adding support added for your list-type.


Figures (<fig>) have to be placed only after the paragraph in which they are cited, not mid-paragraph. If more than one figure or table is cited in any specific paragraph, they should be placed in the order they are cited. If they are cited in a list item, they should be placed after the (outermost) closing list tag.

<p>… in <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Fig.&#xA0;1</xref>. The …</p>

<fig id="f1">
    <label>Fig. 1</label>
    <graphic xlink:href="XXX_22_2_026001_f001.png"/>

<fig> elements ought to be utilized for formal figures, particularly when numbered and/or captioned. If your site incorporates features for example, index of figures, figure carousel, or tab of figures, the <fig> element assigns the items that appear in those features. If a figure has more than one image part, and the image parts require labels, use the <fig-group> element. For instance, the group of figures may have a caption, with the internal figures each having their own label and caption.

The @id attribute must be used on the <fig> or the <fig-group> if they will be referenced from the body of the text using an <xref>. The <graphic> element within the <fig> is used to point to the external file containing a still image. A <graphic> must have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value should be the exact file name of the image. Give just the exacting file name comparative with the directory specified for the file in the appropriate packaging guidelines. For example, a figure image stored directly in the Figure Images directory should use xlink:href="image.png" without a file path preceding the file name.


The <graphic> element can be used without a <fig>. A <graphic> can be put either outside or inside a paragraph, and will show up on its own line in either case.

This tagging should be used for images that are not numbered and may or may not have a label, such as author headshots. These images will show up within the text of the document, without a pop up. These images won't show up in features such as the table of figures.

Inline graphics

Inline graphics appear within a line of text, and are tagged using the <inline-graphic> element. An <inline-graphic> must have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value should be the exact file name of the image.

<p>The temperatures rose 20 degrees <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="sparkline.png" /> in 20 minutes. …</p> 


Like figures, tables ought to be set after the paragraph in which they are cited, and not mid-paragraph. Tables are tagged with the <table-wrap> element and may contain a <label> and <caption>, and must contain a <table> or <graphic> element. Incorporate XML content for the table in <table>. To give the table content in the form of an image, use the <graphic> element to point to the image file instead of using the <table> element.

A <graphic> should have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value must be the exact file name of the image. Provide only the literal file name relative to the directory specified for the file in the appropriate packaging guidelines. For example, a table image stored directly in the Assets directory should use xlink:href="image.png" without a file path preceding the file name. The @id attribute must be used on the <table-wrap> if the table will be referenced by an <xref> from elsewhere in the content. Nova handles table similar to figures. There is usually a box with the table title and caption, and buttons to enable the user to view the full table.

Tabular formatting

In some case, you may want to add very small table inline with the test. Here, "Inline" refers to the table that should appear along with the text and should not receive the regular full table method.

For very simple tables with no caption or a title or column headings, use the <array> element. For a simple table with column headings or a title, use <table-wrap specific-use="inline">.

Avoid using inline tables for anything other than very small tables. For instance, anything more than 3 columns and 5 rows of data. The Nova table approach provides the users with the ability to save tables, use them in presentations, etc, which inline tables do not offer.

Table Models

By default, this Tag Set uses the NISO BITS (XHTML-inspired) table model, as defined in NISO BITS version of the XHTML Table Module. However, this Tag Set can be set up to use the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model either instead of or in addition to the XHTML-inspired model.

The modules that enable the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model are distributed as part of this Tag Set, and a separate OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Tag Library ( describes the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model elements, attributes, and parameter entities.
To enable two different tagging schemes for the same material (row and column tables), all OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model elements have been given a namespace and use the namespace prefix "oasis". Since DTDs do not really work with namespaces, the namespace prefix has been hard-coded into the names of the OASIS table elements. This differentiates the two sets of table elements, allowing both NISO BITS XHTML-inspired and OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table models to be used together.
To illustrate how this works and for use by the user community, a separate OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Archiving DTD is available as part of this Tag Set. It uses the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table elements instead of the NISO BITS XHTML-inspired table elements (filename BITS-archive-oasis-article1.dtd).

NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table

The modules that implement the NISO BITS table coding are:

  • NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table Setup Module (BITS-XHTMLtablesetup1.ent) Sets all parameter entities needed by the NISO BITS version of the XHTML Table Module, and then references (invokes) the NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table Module.
  • To include the NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table model in a tag set, a DTD must reference this module.
  • NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table Module (xhtml-table-1.mod) The public XML DTD version of the XHTML Tables Module. This contains the NISO BITS version of the W3C-developed XHTML table model. This module is invoked from the module %XHTMLtablesetup.ent;.
  • NISO BITS XHTML-inspired Table Style Module (xhtml-inlstyle-1.mod) Declares the @style attribute, which supports inline style markup for elements such as < td >and < tr > and within NISO BITS table model.


The XHTML-inspired table model is the NISO BITS default, but versions of the models (DTD, XSD, and RNG) have been provided for archives and publishers that use OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model. As set up, these are separate models that define both the XHTML-inspired and the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table models, with the OASIS table model namespaced (prefix "oasis") to prevent name clashes. An XML expert can readily turn off the XHTML-based table model, and (once there is only the single OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model, remove the OASIS namespace using NISO BITS-provided overrides (the OASIS Table Module need not be touched). The following files are necessary to use the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model:

  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables (BITS-archive-oasis-article1.dtd) Complete Archiving (Green) DTD for the creation of new journal articles. This extension of the Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD replaces the Archiving DTD module and invokes both the XHTML table and the CALS OASIS XML Exchange Table models.
  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables DTD-Specific Modules (BITS-archive-oasis-custom-modules1.ent) The DTD-specific modules for the new Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD that includes OASIS Tables.
  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables Customize Classes Module (BITS-archivecustom-classes1.ent) The class overrides for this new DTD. These repeat all the class overrides of the regular Archiving DTD, with the table and alternative classes modified to use the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table elements. There is no equivalent mix override module, because this DTD uses the ordinary Archiving mix overrides.
  • BITS OASIS Table Namespace Module (BITS-oasis-namespace1.ent) This modules establishes the prefix for the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model, by default "oasis" ("<oasis:table")
  • BITS Namespaced OASIS XML Table Setup Module (BITS-oasis-tablesetup1.ent) Sets all parameter entities needed by the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model, and then references (invokes) the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Model Module. for declarations of all the table elements.
  • OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Model Module (oasis-exchange.ent) This is the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model DTD fragment, modified to use the OASIS namespace and the "oasis" prefix. This module is invoked from the BITS OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) setup module.



Sometimes, videos may be included in the book content. Like figures, multimedia should be placed after the paragraph in which they are cited and not mid-paragraph. Refer to the below link for video tagging details.

<video width="320" height="240" controls>
  <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4">
  <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg">
  Your browser does not support the video tag.

Media hosted by Nova

Kindly, provide the audio files in the Assets folder of the book package and mention the audio in the book XML as follows:

<media id="audio1" content-type="audio" xlink:href="sounds-good.wmv">
        <title>Heart failure</title>
        <p>Recording of a person with early congestive heart failure.</p>

The <media> ought to have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value must be the exact file name of the multimedia. Mention the exact file name relative to the directory specified for the file in the appropriate packaging guidelines. For instance, an audio file stored directly in the Assets directory should use xlink:href="audio.mp3″ without a file path preceding the file name.

Math and equations

Equations must be placed in a <disp-formula> element or an <inline-formula> element. Both formula elements may contain text, MathML, or images. The <inline-formula> may not contain a <graphic>, but may contain an <inline-graphic>.

Equations appearing on their own line should be contained in a <disp-formula> element. The <disp-formula> element may be placed inside or outside a <p>. To label the formula—for example, with a number that appears to the right of the formula—include the label text in a <label> within the <disp-formula>. The <disp-formula> may be referenced by an <xref>; if the formula will be referenced, an @id attribute must be included.

Equations appearing within a line of text should be placed in an <inline-formula> element. The element should appear within a paragraph (<p>) or other element containing text. Inline formulas cannot be referenced by an <xref>.

Mathematical equations can be described using MathML contained in the <mml:math> element. If both an image and MathML have been provided for a particular equation, we will display the image. The image file name is declared in the @altimg attribute value on the <mml:math> element and it must match the file supplied. If no image is provided, we will display the formatted MathML. MathML elements must use "mml" as the namespace prefix to validate to the BITS DTD.


Special characters within headings must be Unicode entity values. Inline images are supported. For now, Nova does not support links within headings and titles.

Quizzes, Questions and Answers

Use <question-wrap>, <question>, and <explanation> tags, to include questions with open-ended answers. Use the <question-wrap>, <question>, <answer-set>, <answer>, and <explanation> tags, for true-or-false and multiple-choice questions. Questions can be included inside sections (). To provide questions and answers in a question bank and avail full functionality of quizzes, include them in a <sec sec-type="quiz"> element.

Sidebars/boxed text

Sidebars or boxed text should be placed in the <boxed-text> element. The @content-type attribute characterizes how the boxed content ought to be dealt with. Discuss with your project manager about the types of boxed text present in your content and characterize the values to be used for each sort of boxed text. Placement in XML is demonstrative of online placement, so if sidebar or box is put between two paragraphs, that is the place it will seem on the web.


MathML is valid in the BITS DTD. If both an image and MathML are provided in a particular equation, then the only image will be displayed. The image file name in the XML needs to match the file supplied. The image file name should be in the @altimg attribute value on element. If no image is provided, then the MathML will be displayed. Equations will be shown up based on the placement in XML.

Refer BITS documentation,

Hierarchical categories

Books and chapters may belong to categories on the site. These categories may govern how the books are displayed or sold. For example, a set of books may be grouped into two or more "libraries" on the site. Use the <subj-group subj-group-type="category">​ and <subject>​ elements to designate categories for the book or chapter. Each category should be placed in a <subject>​ element within the <subj-group>​ element.

Nova does not create categories on the fly. They should be set up in Nova before bringing in. Nova supports hierarchical article categories, which allows for parent-child relationships between categories. When allotting a child-level category to content, the parent categories should likewise be provided in the event that more than one subcategory shares a similar name. Right now, Nova can import up to a 2-level hierarchy. The model underneath shows an article with a category structure of:

  • Sensor Networks
    • Rainwater Harvesting System
​​<subj-group subj-group-type="category">
​​    <subject>Sensor Networks</subject>
​​<subj-group subj-group-type="category">
​​    <subject>Rainwater Harvesting System</subject>

Use multiple top-level <subj-group subj-group-type="category"> nodes to assign multiple parent-child categories, since the BITS only allows nested <subj-group> elements after the <subject> elements. In the event that different aspects of association are required and the same category name exists for multiple facets, add a hyphen and the name of the category type to the end of the @subj-group-type value. For example, if the following categories such as Research (with category type of Book Categories) and Research (with category type of Article Categories) have been set up in Nova for the same site, then specify the former in the XML by including:

<subj-group subj-group-type="category-Book Categories">

Categories for section content

Use the <kwd-group kwd-group-type="category"> and <kwd> elements under the <fig>, <table-wrap>, or <media> to assign categories for figures, tables, and videos or audio that are integral to book content. For book and chapter level categories, Nova does not create categories on the fly; they must be set up in Nova before importing. To allocate hierarchical categories to section-level content, use the <kwd-group kwd-group-type="category">, <kwd> and <nested-kwd content-type="category"> elements:

​​    <!-- other tags ommitted-->
​​    <kwd-group kwd-group-type="category">
​​        <kwd>CategoryName</kwd>
​​    </kwd-group>
​​    <kwd-group kwd-group-type="category">
​​        <kwd>AnotherCategoryName</kwd>
​​          <nested-kwd content-type="category">
​​              <kwd>ChildCategoryName</kwd>
​​          </nested-kwd>
​​    </kwd-group>

As with book and chapter level categories, to confine the extent of categories that will be alloted to a particular class type, include a hyphen and the name of the category type to the @kwd-group-type or @content-type.

Image maps

To include an image map, list the coordinates and corresponding links in <ext-link>​ elements inside the <graphic>​ node. Put the coordinates in a <named-content content-type="coordinates">​ element. Linked areas will be rectangular. List the coordinates in order x1,y1,x2,y2, where:

  • x1 is the horizontal position, measured from the left, of the top-left corner of the linked area.
  • y1 is the vertical position, measured from the top, of the top-left corner of the linked area.
  • x2 is the horizontal position, measured from the left, of the bottom-right corner of the linked area.
  • y2 is the vertical position, measured from the top, of the bottom-right corner of the linked area.
  • Figure 12
<graphic xlink:href="Abdominal_pain_chronic.png">
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="239876">746,444,804,890 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="789654">436,521,481,540 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="657321">126,786,890,122 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="908765">444,678,234,800 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="400987">444,681,456,987 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="124590">237,333,220,621 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="340978">569,470,456,553 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="908657">344,345,400,777 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="654333">221,421,670,401 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="publisher-id" xlink:href="452228">897,521,231,201 Frank J. Domino, MD and Bree Alyeska Huning Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18(7):499–506. 

Related content

You may link books and chapters to other content that is published separately in the Nova system. Your site can utilize these links to surface related content to the user. Some example use cases include:

  • Surfacing interpretations of the same portion of content.
  • Connecting an errata to its original document.
  • Explicity interfacing two portions of content that cover the same topic.
  • Connecting an author interview to the content they authored.

Use the <related-object> element in the <book-meta> or <book-part-meta> to assign a connection to another portion content. Use the @document-type, @document-id-type, and @document-id attributes to assign the sort of content and document to target. To link to an object (e.g. figure, table) within a portion of content, additionally incorporate the @object-type, @object-id-type, and @object-id attributes with the proper values. You should assign both the document and the object when linking to an object. Links to the following content types can be created from books and from chapters. For links to non-standard content, the target content have to be imported first, or be in the same package when creating a link. For links to books or book content, the book XML with the related-object tag and the target XML can be imported in any order.

Target document/content typeTagging format
​​Non-standard​​<related-object document-type="non-standard" document-id-type="publisher-id" document-id="gbos123-12345"/>​
​​Book (using ISBN 13)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="isbn13" document-id="9-189-239876-2"/>​
​​Book (using ISBN 10)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="isbn10" document-id="5462189743"/>​
​​Book (using eISBN)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="eisbn" document-id="6-321-56560-6"/>​

To target objects within document, additionally include the following attributes:

​​Target object​​Tagging format
​​Main Division (in non-standard only)​​<… object-type="main-division" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Part (in book only)​​<… object-type="part" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Chapter (in book only)​​<… object-type="chapter" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
Section​​<… object-type="sec" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Figure​​<… object-type="fig" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
Table​​<… object-type="table" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
Video​​<… object-type="video" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​

For example

<related-object document-type="non-standard" document-id-type="publisher-id" document-id="gbos123-12345" object-type="fig" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/> 

Links to objects inside non-standard content won't be kept up if the target content is replaced. Use the @link-type attribute to point out the link type. The link-type should match a value in our system. If the link-type is incentive in nature (e.g. A is a correction for B vs. B is corrected by A), the link-type should follow the logic: "The content in this XML is a/the [linkType] of/for the target content."

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